This market trends article identifies comprehensive disclosures related to cybersecurity risks, including discussions about the potential reputational, financial, or operational harm resulting from cybersecurity breaches; the potential associated litigation or regulatory costs; and their policies and procedures addressing cybersecurity incidents, and concludes with practical advice on preparing the required disclosures regarding cybersecurity risks and incidents. The company name, its industry, and the type of filing are also provided in each sample disclosure for reference.

On October 16, 2018, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) released a report of investigation pursuant to Section 21(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act) detailing its investigation of several public companies that were victims of cybersecurity related frauds. While the SEC decided not to pursue enforcement actions against these companies, it emphasized the duty of a public company to comply with the requirements of Section 13(b)(2)(B) of the Exchange Act to devise and maintain a sufficient system of internal accounting controls. On December 6, 2018, in his speech, the SEC Chairman Jay Clayton highlighted cybersecurity risks as one of the prominent challenges the SEC faces. Chairman Clayton reiterated the SEC's statement and interpretive guidance regarding disclosures on cybersecurity risks and incidents (2018 guidance) issued earlier in 2018.

Under the 2018 guidance, public companies are required to disclose cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents to the extent that these are material. In evaluating whether cybersecurity risks or incidents are material, a public company should consider, among other things, the nature and magnitude of cybersecurity risks or prior incidents; the actual or potential harms of a breach to the company's reputation, financial condition, or business operation; the legal and regulatory requirements to which the company is subject; the costs associated with cybersecurity protection, including preventative measures and insurance; and the costs associated with cybersecurity incidents, including remedial measures, investigations, responding to regulatory actions, and addressing litigation.

Once cybersecurity risks and incidents are determined to be material, a public company should provide complete and accurate information in its periodic reports regarding these risks, incidents, and related investigations or litigations.

Public companies generally include cybersecurity related disclosures in the following sections of their offering materials and periodic reports: Risk Factors, Business, and Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A). To date, most of the disclosures related to cybersecurity risks and incidents tend to be quite general in nature. On the other hand, there are a growing number of companies that provide disclosures that are more comprehensive and particularized, with discussions about the potential reputational, financial, or operational harm resulting from cybersecurity breaches, the potential associated litigation or regulatory costs, and their policies and procedures addressing cybersecurity incidents.

For further information on public company disclosure in general, see Public Company Periodic Reporting and Disclosure Obligations and Periodic and Current Reporting Resource Kit.

Risk Factor Disclosures

Item 503(c) (17 C.F.R. § 229.503) of Regulation S-K requires that a company describe the material risks that impact the company's business, results of operations, and future prospects, as well as material risks that make an investment in the offered securities speculative or risky, in the case of an offering document. For further information, see Market Trends 2016/17: Risk Factors, Top 10 Practice Tips: Risk Factors, and Risk Factor Drafting for a Registration Statement. The disclosures should be in plain English and should not be generic. For further information on plain English, see Top 10 Practice Tips: Drafting a Registration Statement and Glossaries in Prospectuses and Annual Reports — Background. A majority of companies choose to disclose cybersecurity risks in the Risk Factor section. The nature of the disclosures varies by company, but companies that have a strong e-commerce presence or that that have experienced a security breach typically provide disclosure with particularity. Companies that are subject to industry regulations on cybersecurity, such as financial service companies, may want to enhance their disclosures by discussing the relevant regulatory development on cybersecurity. When cybersecurity incidents become known, companies typically disclose the incidents together with remedial actions, estimated losses, and other consequences, such as litigation and regulatory action associated with the incidents. For a further discussion on cybersecurity disclosure, see Media & Entertainment Industry Practice Guide — Regulatory Trends. Set forth below are some examples of cybersecurity disclosures in the Risk Factor section.

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