On 15 November 2020, the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ("ASEAN") – Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam – in conjunction with Australia, China, Japan, South Korea, and New Zealand, signed the world's largest free trade agreement ("FTA") to date, known as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership ("RCEP") Agreement. A summary of the RCEP Agreement may be found on the ASEAN website here.
Representing the culmination of eight years of negotiations, the RCEP builds on existing bilateral FTAs among the 15 RCEP Participating Countries ("RPCs"). Together, the RPCs account for about 30% of global gross domestic product ("GDP") and close to a third of the world's population. It signals the RPCs' strong commitment to maintaining open and connected supply chains; broadens individual RPCs' economic linkages and connectivity with the region; and gives them preferential access to the region's growing markets.
We provide an overview of the features of the RCEP below, which improves on the existing ASEAN Plus One agreement in four key areas:
- comprehensive trade facilitation measures;
- improved market access for Trade in Services;
- enhanced investment rules and disciplines; and
- expanded scope and commitments.
Comprehensive Trade Facilitation Measures
- Simplified customs procedures and enhanced trade facilitation provisions: expeditious clearance of goods, including the release of express consignments and perishable goods within six hours of arrival. This is a particularly welcome development as the speed will mean an increase in consumable goods being exported and imported regionally, potentially opening up new markets in the food, agriculture and medical fields.
- Trade in goods: tariff elimination of at least 92% of goods traded amongst RPCs within 20 years of coming into effect. This leads to cost-savings for businesses and generally bodes well for end consumers. Businesses may also be encouraged to source for products amongst RPCs and no just locally. On the other hand, there is a concern that this may cause the market to be flooded with cheaper imports, one of the key reasons India withdrew from the RCEP.
- Streamlining of rules of origin: giving businesses greater
flexibility to tap on preferential market access benefits, as well
as regional cumulation provisions which will allow businesses to
include the use of raw materials and parts sourced from any of the
RPCs as originating content, making it easier for businesses to
meet the required rules of origin for their exports, and thus
benefit from preferential treatment. This is a key advantage given
the enlarged geography over which trade takes place under the
The RCEP also introduces declarations of origin by approved exporters and, eventually, for declarations of origin by any exporter or producer to be an alternative to the certificate of origin as proof of origin of a product. Whilst this may streamline the process within RPCs, it remains to be seen whether non-RPCs might accept such products if these products were to be exported applying these rules, especially to European and Scandinavian countries where product origin and environmental sustainability goals have become not just a key consideration for trade but a preference amongst discerning consumers in those markets.
- Stronger provisions to address non-tariff measures ("NTMs"): includes establishing a platform for RPCs to conduct technical consultations and entering into stronger binding commitments to improve transparency on import regulations. This initiative is long overdue, and in fact has been discussed at different levels, yet with only slow developments given that on the ground the RPCs are all at different stages of readiness. Nevertheless, it is an important development, and confidence remains that NTMs will be fully removed across all RPCs in good time.
Enhanced Commitments for Trade in Services
The Trade in Services Chapter indicates the RPCs' commitment to remove restrictive and discriminatory measures that affect Trade in Services. The RCEP includes rules on market access, national treatment, most-favoured-nation treatment, and local presence. RPCs have further listed out their limitations to specific commitments in a 'negative-list' which seeks to provide greater certainty for service suppliers of other RPCs to navigate the legal framework and to understand the existing measures and regulations of each RPC.
Specifically, on market access, foreign shareholding limits will be increased for at least 65% of services sectors, including Professional Services, Telecommunications, Financial Services, Computer and Related Services, and Distribution and Logistics Services. More sectors may be added in future. In some RPCs, restrictions on foreign equity are implemented through guidelines or ministerial orders which do not require Parliamentary or legislative change. The relaxation of these limits could therefore occur faster than the other measures proposed under the RCEP. Businesses with existing presence in RPCs may therefore wish to consider restructuring their shareholdings in anticipation of these changes.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.