1. What department/agency regulates oil and gas extraction? What are the primary laws which apply?

Several government agencies regulate the oil and gas sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
  1. The National Oil & Gas Authority (the NOGA) regulates and develops Bahrain's hydrocarbons sector. NOGA also controls exploration and production and is responsible for issuing licenses, permits, and approvals to third parties.
  2. The Ministry of Labour is in charge of matters relating to the health and safety of employees in the industrial sector.
  3. The Ministry of Industry, Commerce, and Tourism manages Bahrain's industrial sector. 
  4. The Supreme Council for the Environment is responsible for the development of environmental policies across all sectors, including oil and gas. The Supreme Council, along with the National Oil & Gas Authority, regulate the conduct of stakeholders in the hydrocarbon industry concerning pollution control.
  5. Bahrain Petroleum Company (the BAPCO) has the exclusive right to produce and distribute oil and gas on the government's behalf. BAPCO is the retailer of oil and gas products both in Bahrain and internationally. 
  6. Tatweer Petroleum supports the government in its goal to increase oil production and the availability of gas.

The following laws apply to the regulation of oil and gas extraction in Bahrain:
  1. A. Decree Number 19 of 2015 restructuring National Oil and Gas Authority Board of Directors 
  2. Law Number 36 of 2004 concerning the criminalization and combat of the smuggling of subsidized oil products. 
  3. Laws Number 2 of 2008, Number 24 of 2009, and Number 6 of 2009 ratify development and production sharing agreements between the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain and private oil and gas companies.
  4. Decree Number 77 for the year 2007 incorporating oil and gas holding companies.
  5. Law Number 10 of 2006 concerning specifying the functions and powers of NOGA, established under Decree Number 63 of 2005.
  6. Ministerial Order Number 11 of the Year 2006 which deals with banning the export of subsidized petroleum products
  7. Royal Decree Number 63 of 2005 in respect of the incorporation of the National Oil & Gas Authority

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