Israel: Multiple derivative claim: critical view of the control test 1) Following LCA 13/2903 Intercolony Investments Ltd. v. Shkedi)

Last Updated: 11 July 2019
Article by Roy Shasho

התביעה הנגזרת המרובה עניינה במצב שבו מגיש התביעה הנגזרת – ולמעשה מגיש הבקשה לאישור התביעה הנגזרת – אינו בעל מניות ישיר בחברה הנפגעת שבשל עילת התביעה שלה מוגשת התביעה (כמו בתביעה הנגזרת הרגילה) אלא בעל מניות בחברה המצויה במעלה שרשרת ההחזקות, למשל החברה הא של החברה הנפגעת

בפסק דינו המקי בעניי אינטרקולוני הכיר בית המשפט העליו לראשונה בתביעה הנגזרת המרובה במשפט הישראלי א שחוק החברות אינו מתייחס במפורש לאפשרות להגישה. בכ נת בית המשפט ביטוי הלכתי לקביעות קודמות של הערכאות הדיוניות. רשימה זואינה עוסקת בעצ ההכרה בתביעה הנגזרת המרובה, שלטעמי מוצדקת ומתחייבת משיקולי שוני , שחלק עומדי בבסיס מוסד התביעה הנגזרת בכללותו.

אלא שבפסק הדי בעניי אינטרקולוני פסע בית המשפט צעד נוס וביקש להגדיר מה המקרי שבה תתאפשר הגשת תביעה נגזרת מרובה, ובמילי אחרות, מהו המבח שבהתקיימו תינת לבעל מניות במעלה השרשרת זכות עמידה להגשת תביעה נגזרת מרובה. בית המשפט בחר לאמ את מבח השליטה, שלפיו קיומה של שליטה בשרשרת ההחזקות – בי כשמדובר בשליטה מלאה (שליטה ב %100 מאמצעי השליטה בתאגיד) ובי כשמדובר בשליטה חלקית בלבד – הוא תנאי מספיק להגשת תביעה נגזרת מרובה.

הטענה המרכזית ברשימה זו היא שהבחירה במבח השליטה, ובעיקר קביעת השליטה כמבח מספיק להכרה בתביעה נגזרת מרובה, מעוררת שורה של קשיי , עיוניי ומעשיי . בי היתר אטע כי הנימוקי שהציע בית המשפט לאימו מבח השליטה – ובה החשש שבמקרה של שליטה יוכלו החברות שבמעלה השרשרת, מכוח שליטת , למנוע מהחברה הנפגעת לעמוד על זכויותיה – אינ משכנעי כאשר מדובר בשליטה חלקית. בי היתר בשל קיומ של גורמי אחרי היכולי לדרוש את מיצוי זכויותיה של החברה הנפגעת. עוד אבקש להראות שמבח השליטה אינו משרת את ההצדקות להכרה בתביעה הנגזרת המרובה ואת הרציונלי שבבסיסה, ולעומת זאת הוא מביא לשחיקה לא מוצדקת בעקרונות יסוד אחרי בדיני התאגידי . לבסו , מבח השליטה אינו מתחייב מדוקטרינת הרמת המס או מהגישה הנכסית – שה העוגני המשפטיי שבה נתלה בית המשפט לצור ההכרה בתביעה הנגזרת המרובה.

מבוא. א. על תביעה נגזרת ותביעה נגזרת מרובה. 1 .תביעה נגזרת רגילה ומרובה – מאפייני ומבוא מושגי; 2 .תביעה נגזרת מרובה – הצדקות ושיקולי נגד; ב. פסיקת בתי

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