Mexico: La impresión 3D ¿será pronto al origen del 40% de la producción de los componentes de un avión?

Last Updated: 22 August 2019
Article by Renaud Severac
Most Read Contributor in Mexico, August 2019

Las tecnologías de impresión 3D se anuncian como una de las más importantes evoluciones de los próximos años en la producción industrial, incluido en el sector aeronáutico. Lo invitamos a descubrir cuáles son las posibles ventajas para las empresas del sector aeroespacial.

¿Cuáles son las diferentes aplicaciones de la impresión 3D en el sector aeronáutico ?

La fabricación por adición  (por adición de materia) de impresoras 3D permite a los manufactureros del sector innovar rápidamente, de  llevar a cabo pruebas rigurosas y desarrollar herramientas más eficientes, en un plazo breve, y con una ergonomía de uso mayor. Todo esto, permite optimizar los recursos y reducir los costos de producción.

¿Podemos considerar una industrialización de piezas impresas o solamente son útiles para realizar pruebas y prototipos?

Los grandes actores del sector aeroespacial han iniciado un enfoque de certificación de un número importante de piezas que incluyen este proceso de fabricación. Un prerrequisito antes de industrializar la producción. Las limitaciones del sector aeronáutico les imponen un trabajo importante de I&D, de certificación de la tecnología, de los materiales, de los proveedores...

¿Cuáles son las ventajas de las piezas producidas con la impresión 3D ?

De manera general, una gran precisión del diseño y de la producción, una disminución de los residuos de materia y una reducción de los costos y tiempo de producción. El mantenimiento requerido es menos importante, las impresoras pueden funcionar de noche. En el sector aeronáutico, la impresión 3D también es sinónimo de reducción de peso en los aviones, así como de reducción del consumo de combustible y de mejora de rendimiento. Finalmente, los constructores pueden reducir su herramienta porque no se requiere montaje: todo se imprime en una sola pieza.

¿Son las piezas lo suficientemente sólidas para una aplicación en el sector aeronáutico?

Los materiales empleados en el sector aeroespacial, como el ULTEM 9085 (termoplástico FDM, para "modelado por depósito de materia en fusión") son aprobados por su alta proporción fuerza/peso en conformidad con las normas FST (inflamabilidad, humo y toxicidad) para su aplicación al interior de los aviones. Se trata del material ideal para las aplicaciones en cabina tal como la concepción de conductos, de tapa protectora y de caja eléctrica.

¿Cuáles son las compañías que recurren a la impresión 3D?

Airbus la utiliza para la producción de piezas destinadas a su avión A350XWB. La proporción fuerza/peso permite crear piezas robustas, más ligeras, reduciendo significativamente los costos de fabricación y los tiempos de ejecución. Así, algunas compañías pueden realizar montajes complejos con 16 piezas en lugar de 140, reduciendo los costos y los riesgos gracias a la fabricación aditiva. La NASA ha usado la impresión 3D para producir más de 70 piezas del "Rover" probado sobre las rocas y la arena del desierto de Arizona antes de enviarlo al planeta Marte. La generación rápida de prototipos les ha permitido optimizar el diseño aerodinámico de sus vehículos.

¿Cómo evolucionará la impresión 3D al dar un paso más hacia la industrialización de las piezas aeronáuticas?

Los expertos coinciden en que dentro de 10 años, se producirán con impresión 3D al menos un 40 a 50% de los componentes de los aviones, en lugar del 4 a 5% con el que contamos actualmente. Diez años después, habrá un número limitado de piezas que no estarán creadas por impresión aditiva, o que no recurrirán a esta tecnología durante su producción.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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